lunes, 27 de enero de 2014

A high-energy-density sugar biobattery based on a synthetic enzymatic pathway

Abstract

High-energy-density, green, safe batteries are highly desirable for meeting the rapidly growing needs of portable electronics. The incomplete oxidation of sugars mediated by one or a few enzymes in enzymatic fuel cells suffers from low energy densities and slow reaction rates. Here we show that nearly 24 electrons per glucose unit of maltodextrin can be produced through a synthetic catabolic pathway that comprises 13 enzymes in an air-breathing enzymatic fuel cell. This enzymatic fuel cell is based on non-immobilized enzymes that exhibit a maximum power output of 0.8 mW cm−2 and a maximum current density of 6 mA cm−2, which are far higher than the values for systems based on immobilized enzymes. Enzymatic fuel cells containing a 15% (wt/v) maltodextrin solution have an energy-storage density of 596 Ah kg−1, which is one order of magnitude higher than that of lithium-ion batteries. Sugar-powered biobatteries could serve as next-generation green power sources, particularly for portable electronics.

Subject terms: Chemical sciences
Bioengineering
Catalysis
Chemical biology

At a glance

Figures


Figure 1: Comparison of electrodes based on immobilized and non-immobilized enzymes.

(a) Schematic of (1) the TBAB-modified Nafion polymer-entrapped immobilization, (2) the covalent bonded CNT immobilization and (3) the non-immobilized enzymes. Profiles of voltage versus current density (b) and of power density versus current density (c) using (1) the TBAB-modified Nafion polymer-entrapped immobilization (inserted figure), (2) the covalent bonded immobilization and (3) the non-immobilized enzymes. The experimental conditions were 1 U of G6PDH, 40 U of DI, 10 mM g6p in the 100 mM HEPES (pH 7.5) buffer containing 2 mM NAD+, 10 mM MgCl2 and 0.5 mM MnCl2 at room temperature.

Figure 2: Complete oxidation of maltodextrin based on a synthetic enzymatic pathway.
 
(a) Schematic of the complete oxidation of maltodextrin via the synthetic catabolic pathway. The enzymes are as follows—1: αGP, α-glucan phosphorylase; 2: PGM, phosphoglucomutase; 3: G6PDH, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; 4: 6PGDH, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase; 5: RPI, ribose-5-phosphate isomerase; 6: Ru5PE, ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase; 7: TK, transketolase; 8: TAL, transaldolase; 9: TIM, triosephosphate isomerase; 10: ALD, aldolase; 11: FBP, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase; 12: PGI, phosphoglucose isomerase; and 13: DI, diaphorase. The key metabolites are glucose-1-phosphate (g1p), glucose-6-phosphate (g6p), 6-phosphogluconate (6 pg) and ribulose-5-phosphate (ru5P). Pi, inorganic phosphate; VK3, vitamin K3. (b) Profiles of power density versus current density for the sugar biobattery using only G6PDH, G6PDH and 6PGDH, or the entire pathway. The experimental conditions were 100 mM HEPES, pH 7.5, buffer containing 0.1 mM maltodextrin, 4 mM NAD+, 100 mM HEPES, pH 7.5, 4 mM sodium phosphate, 10 mM MgCl2, 0.5 mM MnCl2, 5 mM DTT and 0.5 mM thiamine pyrophosphate at room temperature. The enzyme loading conditions are shown in Supplementary Table S1. (c) Profiles for current generation and cumulative Faraday efficiency. The experimental conditions were 100 mM HEPES, pH 7.5, buffer containing 0.1 mM of maltodextrin, 10 mM MgCl2, 0.5 mM MnCl2, 4 mM NAD+, 4 mM sodium phosphate, 5 mM DTT, 0.5 mM thiamine pyrophosphate, 50 mg l−1 kanamycin, 40 mg l−1 tetracycline, 40 mg l−1 cycloheximide, 0.5 g l−1 sodium azide, 1 g l−1 BSA and 0.1% Triton X-100.

Figure 3: Continuous power and current outputs for the 13-enzyme fuel cell.
The EFC has an external load of 150 Ω and is run at room temperature. The experimental conditions are 100 mM HEPES, pH 7.5, buffer containing 15% wt/v maltodextrin, 10 mM MgCl2, 0.5 mM MnCl2, 4 mM NAD+, 0.5 mM thiamine pyrophosphate, 4…

EFCs are powered by 500 mM methanol, 7.2% wt/v glucose or 15% wt/v maltodextrin or dehydrated fuels at a voltage of 0.5 V. More information is available in Supplementary Table S3.

Compounds

Gene and protein index

Genes and proteins

    1- Glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase Geobacillus stearothermophilus
    View:

    2 FMN-dependent NADH-azoreductase Geobacillus stearothermophilus
    View:

    3- Alpha-glucan phosphorylase Cthe_0357
    Clostridium thermocellum (strain ATCC 27405 / DSM 1237)

    View:

    4 Phosphoglucomutase/phosphomannomutase alpha/beta/alpha domain I Cthe_1265
    • Clostridium thermocellum (strain ATCC 27405 / DSM 1237)
    View:

    5 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (Decarboxylating) Moth_1283
    • Moorella thermoacetica (strain ATCC 39073)
    View:

    6 Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase pgi
    • Clostridium thermocellum (strain ATCC 27405 / DSM 1237)
    View:

    7 Ribose 5-phosphate isomerase B TM1080
    • Thermotoga maritima (strain ATCC 43589 / MSB8 / DSM 3109 / JCM 10099)
    View:

    8 Ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase TM1718
    • Thermotoga maritima (strain ATCC 43589 / MSB8 / DSM 3109 / JCM 10099)
    View:

    9 Triosephosphate isomerase tpiA
    • Thermus thermophilus (strain HB27 / ATCC BAA-163 / DSM 7039)
    View:

    10 Transketolase TTC1896
    • Thermus thermophilus (strain HB27 / ATCC BAA-163 / DSM 7039)
    View:

    11 Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+] TTC1378
    • Thermus thermophilus (strain HB27 / ATCC BAA-163 / DSM 7039)
    View:

    12 Transaldolase TM0295
    • Thermotoga maritima (strain ATCC 43589 / MSB8 / DSM 3109 / JCM 10099)
    View:

    13 Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase TTC1414
    • Thermus thermophilus (strain HB27 / ATCC BAA-163 / DSM 7039)
    View:

    14 Inositol-1-monophosphatase TM1415
    • Thermotoga maritima (strain ATCC 43589 / MSB8 / DSM 3109 / JCM 10099)
    View:

    15 Ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase TTC1898
    • Thermus thermophilus (strain HB27 / ATCC BAA-163 / DSM 7039)

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      Abstract
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      Affiliations

      Biological Systems Engineering Department, Virginia Tech, 304 Seitz Hall, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA
      Zhiguang Zhu,
      Chun You &
      Y. -H. Percival Zhang

      Cell Free Bioinnovations Inc., 2200 Kraft Drive, Suite 1200B, Blacksburg, Virginia 24060, USA
      Zhiguang Zhu,
      Tsz Kin Tam,
      Fangfang Sun &
      Y. -H. Percival Zhang

      Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA
      Y. -H. Percival Zhang

      Contributions

      Z.Z. and T.K.T. designed experiments, performed experiments and analysed data; F.S. and C.Y. provided key enzymes; and P.Z. and Z.Z. wrote the manuscript. P.Z. designed experiments and conceived the synthetic pathway concept for EFCs.

      Competing financial interests

      The authors declare no competing financial interests.

      Corresponding author

      Correspondence to:
      Y. -H. Percival Zhang
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      ORIGINAL: Nature
      Zhiguang Zhu,
      Tsz Kin Tam,
      Fangfang Sun,
      Chun You
      & Y. -H. Percival Zhang
      Affiliations
      Contributions
      Corresponding author Nature Communications 5,Article number:3026doi:10.1038/ncomms4026 Received 09 July 2013 Accepted 26 November 2013 Published 21 January 2014

      From A high-energy-density sugar biobattery based on a synthetic enzymatic pathway
      Zhiguang Zhu,
      Tsz Kin Tam,
      Fangfang Sun,
      Chun You
      & Y. -H. Percival Zhang Nature Communications 5,Article number:3026doi:10.1038/ncomms4026

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